The Origins of Om Manipadme Hum: A Study of the Karandavyuha Sutra

By Alexander Studholme

Sets out a historical past of the recognized Buddhist mantra, Om Manipadme Hum, and gives new insights on its meaning.

Om Manipadme Hum, might be the main recognized of all Buddhist mantras, lies on the middle of the Tibetan approach and is loved by means of either layman and lama alike. This e-book records the origins of the chant, and provides a brand new interpretation of the that means of Om Manipadme Hum, and encompasses a exact, annotated summary of the Karandavyuha Sutra, establishing up this significant Mahayana Buddhist paintings to a much broader audience.

The Karandavyuha— the earliest textual resource for Om Manipadme Hum—which describes either the compassionate job of Avalokitesvara, the bodhisattva whose strength the chant invokes, and the legendary story of the quest for and discovery of the chant. via an in depth research of this sutra, Studholme explores the historic and doctrinal forces at the back of the looks of Om Manipadme Hum in India at round the center of the 1st millennium C.E. He argues that the Karandavyuha has shut affinities to non-Buddhist puranic literature, and that the belief of Avalokitesvara and his six-syllable mantra is educated by way of the perception of the Hindu deity Siva and his five-syllable mantra Namah Sivaya. The sutra displays an old state of affairs during which the Buddhist monastic institution was once entering touch with Buddhist tantric practitioners, themselves stimulated by means of Saivite practitioners.

“This compact quantity … might be instantly obtainable, and of significant profit, to either Tibetologists and Tibetophiles alike.” — magazine of the overseas organization of Tibetan Studies

“This e-book presents a superb instance of the phenomenon of non secular integration, and obviously exhibits how Buddhism controlled to combine principles and practices from one other religious tradition.” — Francis Brassard, writer of the concept that of Bodhicitta in Santideva's Bodhicaryavatara

“It was once interesting to learn the author's fabulous insights into the syncretic building of early tantric Mahayana Buddhist fabrics just like the Karandavyuha.” — John J. Makransky, writer of Buddhahood Embodied: assets of Controversy in India and Tibet

Alexander Studholme obtained a Ph.D. from the Centre for Buddhist reports, Bristol collage, England.

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The picture given within the s£tras is that of a practitioner seated cross-legged within the calyx of a lotus flower made from jewels, which then unfolds its petals to bare the splendour of 1 or different of the natural lands. The formulation, for that reason, the h®daya, or “heart,” of Avalokiteßvara, the Buddhist ƒßvara, can be an expression of the aspiration to be reborn in Sukhåvatƒ. In end, then, the query is still open as to if Oµ Ma¶ipadme H£µ was once, in truth, the unique six-syllable formulation of Avalokiteßvara or even if this actual shape, which meshes so good with the general layout of the Mahåyåna s£tras, changed an prior mantra, utilized in the interval prior to the incorporation of this doctrine into the Mahåyåna approach, which has now been forgotten.

Vaidya, p. 292, l. 11f. 149. Vaidya, p. 292, l. 11f. : ye ca tasya ˚aÂak˚arƒmahåvidyånåmånusmaranti, tadå te˚u romavivare˚u jåyante / one hundred fifty. Vaidya, p. 290, ll. 14–21. 151. Beyer, “Notes at the imaginative and prescient Quest,” p. 337: “. . . a wave of visionary theism sweeping over the full of northern India, influencing Hindu contemplatives in addition to the [Buddhist] yoga masters of Kashmir. ” 152. Ibid. , p. 338. 153. Bhagavadgƒtå, ix, 17 and xi, forty three. Saddharmapu¶Âarƒka S£tra, xv, 21 (Kern, 1884, p. 309, and Vaidya, 1960, p. 195, l. 13). 154.

21. See David Gellner, Monk, Householder and Tantric Priest (Cambridge: Cambridge college Press, 1992), p. 366, n. 12. Gellner refers to investigate via Horst Brinkhaus. 22. Maurice Winternitz writes that the paintings “is probably not a Purå¶a, yet a Måhåtmya. ” See Maurice Winternitz, A historical past of Indian Literature (Calcutta: collage of Calcutta Press, 1933), II: 375f. 23. Vaidya, p. 265, ll. 1–6. 24. i'm depending, the following, on Burnouf’s precis of the verse s£tra. See Burnouf, L’Introduction, p. 198. 25. Malla, vintage Newari Literature: A caricature (India: Kathmandu academic companies, 1982), p.

Five. 103. Vaidya, p. 281, ll. 28–31. 104. Vaidya, p. 264, ll. 11–14. one hundred and five. Vaidya, p. 271, ll. 25–29. This passage looks neither within the Peking variation of the Tibetan translation, nor in Burnouf’s French translation of the s£tra. 106. Vaidya, p. 276, l. 25f. just like the above, this passage seems neither within the Peking version, nor in Burnouf’s translation. 107. Vaidya, p. 266, ll. 1–3. 108. Vaidya, p. 266, l. 12f. 109. Vaidya, p. 303, ll. 14–17. one hundred ten. Vaidya, p. 303, l. 20–22. 111. Vaidya, p. 303, l. 23. 112. Vaidya, p. 297, l. 21f. : ya˙ kulaputro vå kuladuhitå vå imåµ ˚aÂak˚arƒµ mahåvidyåµ japet, sa imån samådhƒn pratilabhate / tadyathå—ma¶idharo nåma samådhi˙, .

281, ll. 28–31. 104. Vaidya, p. 264, ll. 11–14. one zero five. Vaidya, p. 271, ll. 25–29. This passage seems neither within the Peking version of the Tibetan translation, nor in Burnouf’s French translation of the s£tra. 106. Vaidya, p. 276, l. 25f. just like the above, this passage appears to be like neither within the Peking variation, nor in Burnouf’s translation. 107. Vaidya, p. 266, ll. 1–3. 108. Vaidya, p. 266, l. 12f. 109. Vaidya, p. 303, ll. 14–17. a hundred and ten. Vaidya, p. 303, l. 20–22. 111. Vaidya, p. 303, l. 23. 112. Vaidya, p. 297, l. 21f. : ya˙ kulaputro vå kuladuhitå vå imåµ ˚aÂak˚arƒµ mahåvidyåµ japet, sa imån samådhƒn pratilabhate / tadyathå—ma¶idharo nåma samådhi˙, .

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